Figure 1. Effects of ozone on the lung. O3 can disrupt epithelial tight junctions and mucociliary clearance and can induce production of proinflammatory factors. O3 is directly cytotoxic to macrophages. O3 can modify macrophage phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and levels of secreted factors. O3 can impair neutrophil phagocytosis and intracellular killing.
Adapted from Hollingsworth. Proc Am Thorac Soc Vol 4. pp 240–246, 2007.