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Glossary (Q-U)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

R

Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale
A self assessment scale used to determine how hard you are exercising. The scale rates symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue during exercise. Intensity will vary on a scale of 1 (very easy) to 10 (maximal).

Registered Dietitian
A specialist in nutrition and food selection.

Rehabilitation
To restore health and quality of life through education, exercise and diet.

Reiter's Disease
A triad of nongonococcal urethritis followed by conjunctivitis and arthritis, of unknown etiology.

Rescue Medication
A short-acting medication (bronchodilator) designed to quickly relieve symptoms.

Residual Volume (RV)
Residual Volume (RV), is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after exhaling out as much air as possible

Respiration Disorders
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome
A condition of the newborn marked by dyspnea with cyanosis, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, most frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

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Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult
A syndrome of life-threatening progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the absence of known pulmonary disease, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.

Respiratory Hypersensitivity
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and HAY FEVER.

Respiratory System
The entire system of organs and tissues involved in breathing. Referring to the mouth and nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm.

Respiratory Insufficiency
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Respiratory Paralysis
Loss or impairment of motor function in the lungs due to lesion of the neural or muscular mechanisms. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Respiratory System
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.

Respiratory System Abnormalities
Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.

Respiratory Tract Diseases
Disorders of the respiratory tract, general or unspecified.

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Respiratory Tract Fistula
An abnormal passage communicating between any parts of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and other organs.

Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections of the respiratory tract, general or unspecified.

Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Neoplasms or tumors of the respiratory tract.

Reticuloendothelial System

A group of cells having the ability to take up and sequester inert particles and vital dyes, including macrophages and reticular cells of the lymphatic tissue, among others. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Reticuloendotheliosis

Hyperplasia of reticuloendothelial tissue, in any organ or tissue. A related concept is reticulosis which is an increase in reticuloendothelial elements.

Rh Isoimmunization
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother during delivery, causing her to produce IgG antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh- fetuses in subsequent pregnancies.

Rhinitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose

Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.

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Rhinitis, Atrophic
A chronic form of rhinitis marked by wasting of the mucous membrane and the glands. It is usually associated with crusting and foul-smelling discharges.

Rhinitis, Vasomotor
A form of rhinitis brought about by changes in vascular tone and permeability. The etiology is obscure.

Rhinoscleroma
A granulomatous disease affecting the nose and nasopharynx, usually ascribed to klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. It occurs in Egypt, eastern Europe, and Central and South America.

Rigid Bronchoscopy
As opposed to a flexible rubber tube, rigid bronchoscopy, as the name implies, uses a rigid, hollow, metal tube to access the airways. This procedure requires general anesthesia as opposed to flexible bronchoscopy, which can be done with conscious sedation (heavy sedation).

RV
Please see "Residual Volume"

S


Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)

Schnitzler Syndrome
An extremely rare condition manifested as monoclonal lgM dysproteinemia without features of Iymphoproliferative disease, but with chronic urticaria, fever of unknown origin, disabling bone pain, hyperostosis, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

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Scimitar Syndrome
Anomalous venous drainage of the right lung into the inferior vena cava, with hypoplasia of the right lung. The scimitar-shaped radiographic shadow of the anomalous vein gives the syndrome its name.

Secondary Immune Deficiency
An immune deficiency that is not inherited, but is acquired.

Secretions
Fluids produced in the body.

Serum Sickness
Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

Sezary Syndrome
A form of cutaneous T -cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative erythroderma, intense pruritus, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear cells in the skin, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells). (Dorland, 27th ed)

Sick Building Syndrome
A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC), allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL), ASTHMA, infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Side Effects
An unwanted effect of a medicine.

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Siderosis
The deposition of iron in a tissue. In the eye, the iron may be deposited in the stroma adjacent to the Descemet's membrane.

Silicosis
Pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of dust of stone, sand, or flint containing silicon dioxide, with formation of generalized, nodular fibrotic changes in both lungs. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Silicotuberculosis
Tuberculosis of the silicotic lung.

Silo Filler's Disease
Pneumonia or bronchiolitis caused by inhalation of nitrogen dioxide released by silage.

Sinusitis
An inflammatory process of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses that occurs in three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. Sinusitis results from any condition causing ostial obstruction or from pathophysiologic changes in the mucociliary transport mechanism.

Sjogren's Syndrome
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.

Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders involving apneic episodes during sleep. They may be due to cessation of diaphragmatic movement, obstruction of upper airway air flow, or a combination of these, and may be associated with hypersomnolence, insomnia, or obesity.

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Sphenoid Sinus
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One of the paired paranasal sinuses, located in the body of the sphenoid bone and communicating with the highest meatus of the nasal cavity on the same side.

Sphenoid Sinusitis
Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus. This condition usually is accompanied by pansinusitis and may present itself in an acute or chronic form.

Spleen
A large gland like but ductless organ situated in the upper part of the abdominal cavity on the left side and lateral to the cardiac end of the stomach. It disintegrates the red blood cells and sets free the hemoglobin, serves as a reservoir of blood, produces lymphocytes and plasma cells, and has other functions, the full scope of which is not entirely determined. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Spondylitis, Ankylosing
The form of rheumatoid arthritis affecting the spine. It occurs predominantly in young males and produces pain and stiffness as a result of inflammation of the sacroiliac, intervertebral, and costovertebral joints. Etiology is unknown.

Status Asthmaticus
A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.

Stents
Different types of devices placed in the airways to keep them open against any internal or external compressive forces.

Steroids
A strong, but effective medication used to treat asthma and other conditions.

Stiff-Man Syndrome
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Rare central nervous system disorder of unknown etiology characterized by progressive rigidity and painful spasms of the axial and limb musculature. Diagnosis is based on the appropriate clinical signs, continuous motor activity on electromyography, and significant favorable response to diazepam. It has been suggested that the syndrome may result from an imbalance between the GABA-ergic and catecholaminergic pathways that control motor unit activity; the imbalance may be caused by autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase.

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Still's Disease, Adult-Onset
Systemic-onset rheumatoid arthritis in adults. It differs from classical rheumatoid arthritis in that it is more often marked by acute febrile onset, and generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly are more prominent.

Strength
Exercise using weights or other equipment to apply resistance to different movements.

SuperDimension Navigation System
A electromagnetic navigation system that allows us to reach into remote areas of the lungs to sample abnormal and suspicious areas. It works quite like a navigation system used in cars these days.

Symptom
A sign of disease noticed by the patient.

T

T-Lymphocyte Subsets
A classification of T -lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.

T-Lymphocytes (T-Cells)
Lymphoid cells concerned with cell-mediated immunity. They originate from lymphoid stem cells that migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus and differentiate under the influence of the thymic hormones. Various subpopulations have been described. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
Immunized T -lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated Iympholysis (CML). These cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity.

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T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T -cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T -cells to initiate a variety of cell- mediated immune functions.

T-Lymphocytes, Suppressor-Effector
Subpopulation of CD8+ T -lymphocytes which suppress antibody production or inhibit cellular immune responses. Suppressor-effector cells execute the message received from suppressor-inducer cells (T- LYMPHOCYTES, SUPPRESSOR-INDUCER).

T-Lymphocytes, Suppressor-Inducer
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes which induce CD8+ suppressor T -cells (T -L YMPHOCYTES, SUPPRESSOR-EFFECTOR) to suppress antibody production by B-cells. They also stimulate other cellular immune responses.

T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.

Tachycardia
A fast heart rate.

Tachypnea
An increased respiratory rate.

Th1 Cells
Subset of helper-inducer T -lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their Iymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.

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Th2 Cells
Subset of helper-inducer T -lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.

Thoracic Duct
The canal that ascends from the cisterna chyli to the junction of the left subcalvian and left internal jugular vein. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Thoracoscope
The thoracoscope is an instrument used to examine the pleural cavity through an opening made between the ribs.

Thoracoscopy
Thoracoscopy is the insertion of small scope through the chest wall to enable a physician to see the inside of the chest cavity and the lungs. The procedure is done to biopsy abnormal lung tissue, determine the cause of fluid in the chest cavity, introduce therapeutic agents directly into the pleural space, and treat air bubbles on the lung.

Thoracotomy
A surgical procedure done through an incision of the chest wall.

Thymus Gland
A bilaterally symmetric lymphoid organ situated in the anterior superior mediastinum. Each of its two lobes consists of an outer zone, the cortex, relatively rich in lymphocytes (thymocytes), and an inner zone, the medulla, relatively rich in epithelial cells. The thymus is the site of the production of T -lymphocytes. The thymus reaches its maximal development at about puberty and then undergoes a gradual process of involution resulting in a slow decline of immune function throughout adulthood. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

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Thyroid Cartilage
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.

Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
Progressive enlargement of the thyroid gland, often associated with hypothyroidism.

Tissues
A group of similar cells in the body that come together to do the same job. Examples are skin, bone, lymph, and muscle tissues.

TLC
Please see "Total Lung Capacity"

Tonsil
Either of two small, almond-shaped masses located between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal
arches, one on either side of the oropharynx. It is composed mainly of lymphoid tissue, covered with mucous membrane, and containing various crypts and many lymph follicles. It is believed to act as the source which supplies the mouth and pharynx with phagocytes which destroy bacteria entering the mouth. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils. It is often caused by a bacterium. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the total volume of gas (air) in the lungs after a maximal voluntary inspiration.

Trachea
The rigid tube that connects the mouth with the bronchi (windpipe).

Tracheal Diseases
Disorders of the trachea, general or unspecified.

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Tracheal Neoplasms
Neoplasms or tumors of the trachea.

Tracheal Stenosis
Narrowing or stricture of the trachea.

Tracheitis
Inflammation of the trachea.

Tracheobronchomegaly
A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.

Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Abnormal communication between the esophagus and the trachea which is often associated with esophageal atresia. This abnormality may be acquired, but is frequently congenital.

Transtracheal Oxygen
Delivery of oxygen through a thin catheter placed directly in the trachea.

Tuberculosis, Laryngeal
Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the vocal cords and laryngeal mucosa. It is commonly attended by hoarseness, cough, pain on swallowing, and hemoptysis.

Tuberculosis, Pleural
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
Tuberculosis of the lungs.

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Tumor Lysis Syndrome
A syndrome resulting from cytotoxic therapy, occurring generally in aggressive, rapidly proliferating Iymphoproliferative disorders. It is characterized by combinations of hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.

Turbinates
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

U

Ultrasound
Ultrasound is a medical imaging technique that uses high frequency sound waves and their echoes. In ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are transmitted into your body using a probe. The sound waves travel into your body and reflect back to the probe when they hit a boundary between tissues. The reflected waves are picked up by the probe and relayed to the ultrasound machine. The machine determines the distance from the probe to the tissue or organ. The machine displays the distances and intensities of the echoes on the screen, forming a two dimensional image. The probe can be moved along the surface of the body and angled to obtain various views.

Urticaria
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The cause may be allergy, infection, or stress.

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